Oceanography Description

Key Elements


BIOA 418


M1 Environmental and life Sciences - Option : Vegetal





Number of Teaching Hours


Number of Tutoring Sessions


Number of Laboratory Sessions


This course is optional



Goals: - Transmit the importance of the course as a science of the future. - Know the physicochemical properties of sea water and its movements - Highlight the marine biological and ecological factors and concepts: habitats, biodiversity and ecosystems through the study of both pelagic and benthic areas. - Introduce the basics of fishing and highlight the impact of pollution and human activities. Educational objectives: At the end of this course, students should be able to know: - Understand the terminology of marine ecology. - The marine fauna and flora mainly those of the Lebanese coast. - The impact of environmental factors (including global change and alien species on species distribution. - The importance of marine resources, conservation of resources, marine reserves and continued development.


Introduction: definition, history and areas of oceanography Chapter I. General Marine Subdivisions of the marine environment (Oceans and Seas). Chapter II. Physical properties of seawater Light penetration in sea water, hydrostatic pressure, viscosity, density, temperature (variations and methods of measurement). Chapter III. Movements of seawater Waves, tides, ocean currents, upwelling, general circulation in the Mediterranean and in the Strait of Gibraltar. Chapter IV. Chemical properties of seawater Gas phase (oxygen dissolved, CO2 System) and liquid phase: salinity and primary and secondary components of seawater Chapter V. Pelagic life V.1. Plankton: Dimensional classification, vertical subdivisions of the water column, the general characteristics of Plankton, red tide. + The Phytoplankton: General characters, classification and ecology. Sampling methods and fixation. Distribution. Biomass and primary production. + The Zooplankton: General characters, classification and ecology. Distribution, deep scattering layers, methods of collecting food, interaction between zooplankton, Phyto and Zooplankton Interaction. Hourly or daily ratio. Use of metabolites and energetic budget V.2. The Nekton: General characters, classification and ecology. Distribution, adaptation, morphology, shoals. Fish migration. Modes of nutrition. Chapter VI. Benthic life Definition, bottom topography, dimensional classification of phyto and zoobenthos, classification of species. Basic concepts and terms used in marine ecology. Zonation and layering. Ecological factors. Lifestyle. Chapter VII. Tools and technology for the study of Benthos and fisheries. Chapter VIII. Study of community structures. Mathematical data treatment. Biodiversity and the main coefficients and indices used. Chapter IX. Benthic biodiversity in Lebanon and the impact of climate change and alien species. Main references: - Bellan-Santini D., Lacaze J.C., Poizat C., 1994. Les biocénoses marines et littorales de Méditerranée, synthèse, menaces et perspectives. Collection Patrimoines Naturels. Secrétariat de la Fauneet de la Flore/M.N.H.N., 19 : 1-246. - Bitar G., 2008. Vue d’ensemble sur la vulnérabilité et les impacts des changements climatiques sur la biodiversité marine et côtière (Liban). UNEP-MAP-CAR/ASP (N° 16_2008 PAS BIO/RAC/SPA), Tunis : 41pages. - Caroll M. Lalli and Timothy R. Parsons.1993. Biological oceanography: an introduction. Pergamon Press. 301 pages. - Patrick Geistdoerfer. 2002. Océanographie générale. Patrick Geistdoerfer. 2002. INFOMER. France. 270 pages. - Pérès J.M., 1976. Précis d’océanographie biologique. Presses Universitaires de France. - Pérès J.M., Picard J., 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la Méditerranée. Rec Trav. Stat. Mar. Endoume,