Population genetics combines observations and theory in order to explain the genetic changes that occur within and between populations. Population genetics uses a variety of disciplines, especially molecular biology, genetics, ecology, evolutionary biology, natural history, animal selection, plant selection, human genetics and epidemiology, anthropology and statistics
This course is designed to provide students the bases and fundamental concepts of population genetics with the aim of enhancing their knowledge for the importance of biodiversity, genetic variability and to model the future of populations and species.
This course uses a variety of themes: the genetic makeup of populations, the general model of Hardy-Weinberg, the deviations from panmixia, the genetic drift, the selection and others. Each theme contains interesting and useful exercises chosen to illustrate the application of essential notions.
Chapter 1: Definition and measurement of the genetic diversity
Genetic constitution of populations
2. The different types of polymorphisms useful in genetics of populations
3. Measurement of the genetic diversity and genetic composition of population
4. The genetic diversity in man
Chapter 2: The general model of Hardy-Weinberg
1. the model of Hardy-Weinberg and the birth of population genetics
2. Establishment of Hardy Weinberg model
3. Statement of Hardy Weinberg model
4. Application of the Hardy-Weinberg model to calculate allele frequency for characters with recessive phenotypes.
5. Statistic tests to verify the conformity to Hardy-Weinberg model.
Chapter 3: Generalization of Hardy-Weinberg model
1. Generalization of the Hardy-Weinberg model to a multi-allelic gene - gene carried by a heterochromosome - overlapping generations
2. Hardy-Weinberg model applied to the analysis of the genetic composition of a population for two genes studied simultaneously.
Chapter 4: Panmixia deviations: inbreeding, autogamy, homogamy
Factors of variation in allele frequencies
Chapter 5: Genetic deviation
Chapter 6: Mutation and migration
Chapter 7: Selection
Chapter 8: Combined effect of several factors deterministic and nondeterministic
Plan of LAB/TS BIOA 415
This module consists of two parts:
1. TS: Includes both solved exercises related to each theme, and the analysis and discussion of scientific papers that are represented by a subject-list made available to students. Additional reading by students is desirable, without neglecting the teaching materials such as original scientific articles and scientific journals.
2. LAB: Statistical analysis of data by population genetics software Ver 3.1 ARLEQUIN, created by the laboratory CMPG at the University of Bern in Switzerland. The software includes two categories of analysis, Inter-population (AMOVA, pairwise genetic distance) and intra-population (molecular diversity, mismatch distribution, haplotype frequency estimation, liaison disequilibrium, Hardy-weinberg equilibrium, etc. .. ).
The choice of statistical tests is free but must be an application of the BIOA414 course. The hourly volume of LAB must have a minimum of 2 sessions of 3 hours each not exceeding half of the total hours.
- Génétique des populations, Daniel L. Hartl, Flammarion 1994.
- Génétique de population, Jean-Louis Serre, Dunod, 2006.
- Précis de Génétique des populations, Jean Pierre Henry et Pierre-Henri Gouyon, Dunod, 2008.
- Génétique et évolution. M. Solignac, G. Perriquet, D. Anxolabérère et C. Petit, Hermann, Paris, 1995
- Excoffier, L. G. Laval, and S. Schneider (2005) Arlequin ver. 3.0: An integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online 1:47-50.